Endodontic procedures are used in the diagnosis and treatment of oral pain involving the pulp and periradicular area (just outside or around the root of the tooth origin).

Pulp therapy, such as pulpotomy, is a common endodontic procedure in which dental pulp is removed from the pulp chamber. The nonsurgical treatment of root canals, especially in difficult cases such as teeth with blocked, narrow or unusually positioned canals, also is a major part of endodontic therapy.

Endodontic treatment may also be required for surgical removal of diseased or abnormal (pathologic) tissues, repair procedures associated with the surgical removal of pathologic tissues, repair of cracked teeth or the replacement (replantation) of teeth knocked out (avulsed) by injury.

Additional endodontic procedures include:

Surgical removal of tooth structure, such as an apicoectomy, or root-end resection (the removal of the root tip and the surrounding infected tissue of an abscessed tooth), hemisection (the process of cutting a tooth with two roots in half) and bicuspidization (procedure to change tricuspid valve into a functioning bicuspid valve)
Root-end filling
Endodontic implants, which extend through the root canal into the periapical bone structure (tip or apex of the root of a tooth), whereas other types of tooth implants are anchored directly in the gums or jawbones
Bleaching of dentin and enamel
Retreatment of teeth previously treated endodontically
Placement of posts and/or cores to save and strengthen teeth